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GLOBAL ACTORS



 

Borlaug, Norman E. (1914-). Plant scientist who played leading role in developing high-yield, disease-resistant wheat strains. PhD, University of Minnesota, 1942. Nobel Peace Prize for "Green Revolution,"1970. Joined Rockefeller Foundation cooperative project on wheat research and improvement in Mexico,1944. Developed new methods for crossing and testing strains; worked with farmers to implement changes. "Green Revolution" contributed to the improvement of food production in developing countries (e.g., Pakistan, India), helping nearly to double global grain yields per acre in second half of twentieth century. Since 1980s involved in African projects. Faced criticism from environmentalists for use of inorganic fertilizers. Publications include The Impact of Agricultural Research on Mexican Wheat Production (1958); Wheat Breeding and Its Impact on World Food Supply (1968); A Green Revolution Yields a Golden Harvest (1969). Sources: D. Paarlberg, Norman Borlaug: Hunger Fighter, 1970; D.G.Johnson, The Struggle Against World Hunger,1967.

LINKS:

http://ideachannel.com/Borlaug.htm

The Life and Work of Norman Borlaug, Nobel Laureate

http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/97jan/borlaug/borlaug.htm

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Bové, José (1953-). French activist and farmer, prominently involved in opposition to free trade policies, corporate agriculture, and genetically modified food. Born in Bordeaux, spent early childhood in Berkeley (US). College activist in France after 1968. Moved to countryside to farm in 1975, involved in politics of agriculture. Launched Peasant Confederation in 1987 (fusion of two organizations) to defend independent farmers and promote traditional practices. Caught public attention with destruction of genetically modified rice plants and ransacking of McDonald's (Millau) in 1999, followed by prosecution and trials. Celebrity in anti-globalization movement (chant at World Social Forum, Porto Alegre 2001: "We are all José Bové"). Publications: The World Is Not For Sale: Farmers Against Junk Food (with others; Verso 2001); La Révolte d'un Paysan (Éditions Golias 2001); "Pour une Agriculture Paysanne (Le Monde, 1999); "Report from French Farmers" (address to court).


Cardoso, Fernando Henrique (1931-). Influential scholar of underdevelopment, elected President of Brazil in 1994. PhD, University of São Paulo, 1961. Long-time professor of political science at University of Sao Paulo, now emeritus; member of the Scientific Council of CEBRAP (Brazilian Center for Analysis and Planning). Known among academics for Dependency Theory, influenced by Marxist concepts, attributing Latin American underdevelopment to dependence on foreign capital and political influence. Started political career in 1970s; co-founder of two political parties; senator, 1988-92; foreign minister and finance minister, 1992-4. Since election to presidency a vigorous advocate of free markets, privatization, and containing inflation. Publications include Dependency and Development in Latin America (with E. Faletto;1978); The New Global Economy in the Information Age (contributor;1993). Source: T. Goertzel, Fernando Henrique Cardoso: Reinventing Democracy in Brazil, 1999.

LINKS:

http://crab.rutgers.edu/~goertzel/fhc.htm

http://www.servnet.com.br/sol99/business/politica/fhc1.htm

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Carter, Jimmy (James Earl Carter, Jr., 1924-). President of U.S., 1977-81, and leading supporter of global causes. BS, The United States Naval Academy, 1946. As president contributed to major accords (Panama Canal, Camp David, SALT II) and championed human rights. Founder of Carter Center and distinguished professor at Emory University, 1982-. Actively involved in conflict resolution, election monitoring, human rights advocacy, and immunization projects around the world. Publications include A Government as Good as Its People (1977); Keeping Faith: Memories of a President (1982); Living Faith (1996). Sources: D. Brinkley, The Unfinished Presidency: Jimmy Carter's Journey Beyond the White House, 1998; R.A. Strong, Working in the World : Jimmy Carter and the Making of American Foreign Policy, 2000

LINKS:

http://www.cartercenter.org

http://www.whitehouse.gov/WH/glimpse/presidents/html/jc39.html

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Case, Steve (1958-). Leading internet entrepreneur who developed America Online into largest online service at turn of century. BA, Williams College, 1980. Chairman of AOL after $165B merger with Time Warner (2000), combining internet, cable, broadcasting, and publishing properties. Since 1985 involved in Control Video Corp./Quantum Computer, which adopted America Online name for internet service in 1989. Source: "From Suburban Roots to a Global Ambition," Washington Post, June 4, 2000.

LINKS:

http://hometown.aol.com/stevecase

http://www.tbwt.com/interaction/1pcase/html/1.htm

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De Soto, Hernando (1941-). Influential Peruvian economist and development expert, known for advocating legalization of property of the poor as basis for capital formation and economic growth. Born in Arequipa, Peru; went abroad with diplomat father. College in Peru, graduate education in Geneva. Worked for GATT, organization of copper-exporting nations, and Swiss engineering company. Returned to Peru in 1980, founded Institute for Liberty and Democracy in 1982 to study informal economy and pursue reform to help the poor. Advisor to President Fujimori in early 1990s, involved in legalizing many illegal buildings and small businesses. Active in development and reform outside Peru since 1996. Publications: The Other Path (1986) and The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else (Basic Books 2000; reviewed by R. Samuelson here).


Friedman, Thomas L. (1953-). Influential commentator on globalization and foreign affairs. Educated at Brandeis University and St. Antony's College, Oxford. Former foreign affairs correspondent, currently columnist for New York Times. Winner of two Pulitzer prizes, one for reporting on Lebanon reflected in From Beirut to Jerusalem, 1988. Describes globalization as inexorable, mainly positive in widely reviewed bestseller, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, 1999.

LINK:

http://www.lexusandtheolivetree.com

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Gates, William (1955-). Influential entrepreneur in PC revolution; co-founder (1975) and Chairman of Microsoft, leading provider of operating systems and software applications for personal computers in 1980s and 1990s. Studied at Harvard University (1973-75). Guiding assumption: a PC on every desktop, to be operated by Microsoft software. Adapted company strategy to internet in 1990s. Long considered world's richest man. Founder of Gates Foundation, one of world's largest charities. Company found guilty of antitrust violations in 2000. Publications: The Road Ahead (1995) and Business@the Speed of Thought (1999). Sources: J. Wallace, Hard Drive: Bill Gates and the Making of the Microsoft Empire, 1993; D. Ichbiah and S.L. Knepper, The Making of Microsoft: How Bill Gates and His Team Created the World's Most Successful Software Company,1991; P. Andrews, How the Web was Won: Microsoft from Windows to the Web, 1999.

LINK:

http://www.microsoft.com/billgates

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Gorbachev, Mikhail S. (1931-). Last Soviet president; key figure in demise of communist rule in Eastern Europe and end of Cold War. Graduated from Moscow State University. After career in Communist Party, became General Secretary and President of Soviet Union, 1985-91. Attempted reform to preserve socialism and party role via perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openness). Allowed Moscow allies to abolish communism and acceded to demise of Soviet system. Nobel Peace Prize, 1990, for role in transition. President of International Foundation for Socio-Economic and Political Studies (Gorbachev Foundation), 1992-, and Green Cross International. Publications include Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World (1987); The Years of Hard Decisions (1993); On My Country and the World (1999). Sources: M. Galeotti, Gorbachev and his Revolution, 1997; R. Suny, The Soviet Experiment: Russia, the USSR, and the Successor States, 1998.

LINK:

http://www.gci.ch

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John Paul II, Pope (Karol Jozef Wojtyla,1920-). Leader of Roman-Catholic Church since 1978, influential voice on world issues, contributed to end of Communism in eastern Europe. PhD, Jagiellonian University, 1949. First non-Italian pope in 455 years. Had been published poet, professor of ethics and member of theater group prior to church career. Influential supporter of anticommunist movements, esp. in native Poland, hence credited with role in ending Cold War. Reaffirmed conservative church position on abortion, birth control, and ordination of women. Spread message through frequent travel, fostering non-Western church growth reflected in diversified bishop ranks. Cracked down on church critics and liberation theology; also defended rights of labor and opposed dominance of materialist capitalism. Publications include The Splendor of Truth (encyclical, 1993);The Gospel of Life (encyclical;1995); Celebrate 2000: A Three Year Reader : Reflections on Jesus, the Holy Spirit, and the Father (1996). Sources: G. Weigel, Witness To Hope: The Biography of Pope John Paul II, 1999; J.F. Crosby et al., The Legacy of John Paul II: His Contribution to Catholic Thought, 2000.

LINKS:

http://popejohnpaul.com

http://www.udayton.edu/mary/resources/jpbibidx.html (bibliography)

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Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah Moussavi (1902-1989). Iranian cleric, opponent of Shah's rule in 1960s and 70s from exile, leader of Islamic Revolution, then founder of Islamic Republic of Iran, 1979. Denounced U.S. as Great Satan; opposed Western influence in Islamic world. Favored strict application of Islamic law; assumed new position of vali-e faqih, supreme jurist-leader. Author of several books on Islam. Publications include Islamic Government (1979); A Clarification of Questions (1984). Sources: A. Taheri, The Spirit of Allah: Khomeini and the Islamic Revolution, 1985; N.R. Keddie and E. Hooglund, eds., The Iranian Revolution and the Islamic Republic, 1986; A. Ehteshami, After Khomeini : The Iranian Second Republic, 1995.

LINKS:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/revolution/biogs.shtml

http://www.khomeini.com

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Kissinger, Henry A. (1923-). Influential figure in American foreign policy since 1960s. PhD, Harvard University, 1954. After teaching history at Harvard, served as National Security Advisor, then Secretary of State (1973-77) under Presidents Nixon and Ford. Advocated detente with Soviet Union, negotiated peace with North Vietnam, pursued Mideast diplomacy. Favored realist defense of state interests over pursuit of moral mission. Influential commentator on international affairs after leaving office. Publications include American Foreign Policy (1974); Diplomacy (1995); Years of Renewal (1999). Sources: W. Isaacson, Kissinger: A Biography, 1993; R. Strong, Bureaucracy and Statesmanship : Henry Kissinger and the Making of American Foreign Policy, 1986.

LINK:

http://www.nobel.se/peace/laureates/1973/kissinger-bio.html

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Krugman, Paul (1953-). Influential economic theorist and commentator on international economics. PhD, MIT, 1977. Ford International Professor of Economics at MIT. Developed new theory of international trade. Columnist for New York Times since 2000. Iconoclastic policy analyst; has opposed viewing countries as firms in competition, recommended capital controls to deal with speculative capital movements, and proposed deficit spending in Japan to end recession. Author of Market Structure and Foreign Trade (with E. Helpman; 1985), International Economics (with M. Obstfeld; 1997), and many books for general public.

LINK:

http://www.wws.princeton.edu/~pkrugman

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Lubbers, Ruud (1939-). Dutch politician and student of globalization, UN High Commissioner for Refugees (2001-). Studied economics in Rotterdam, worked in family business, and became active in Catholic Party before serving as Minister of Economic Affairs (1973-7). Christian-Democratic leader in Parliament (1977-82). Prime minister of the Netherlands, various cabinets, 1982-94. Professor of globalization studies, Tilburg University, 1995-200, focusing on problems of social cohesion and human values in globalization. Involved in wide variety of organizations prior to UNHCR appointment.


MacBride, Sean (1904-1988). Irish diplomat active in numerous international organizations; chaired Amnesty International, 1961-74. Nobel Peace Prize, 1974. Author of UNESCO report proposing international communication order less dominated by West (Many Voices, One World, 1980). Previously active in struggle for Irish independence, trial lawyer, founder (1946) and leader of Republican Party, and foreign minister (1948-51). UN Commissioner for Namibia (elected 1973). Chairman and President, International Peace Bureau, 1968-85. Publications include Israel in Lebanon (1984). Sources: A.J. Jordan, Seán MacBride: A Biography, 1993.

LINK:

http://ipb.org/prizes/macbride.htm

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Mandela, Nelson (Rolihlahla Dalibhunga) (1918-). Key figure in struggle against apartheid in South Africa; first post-apartheid president, 1994-99. Studied in University College of Fort Hare and in Johannesburg. Former President of African National Congress (joined in 1942). Imprisoned by South African government for over 20 years for engaging in armed attacks on regime. Influential voice and symbol of struggle against all racial discrimination. Nobel Peace Prize, 1993. Publications include Long Walk to Freedom : The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela (1995); In the Words of Nelson Mandela (1998). Sources: A. Sampson, Mandela : The Authorized Biography, 1999; M. Meredith, Nelson Mandela : A Biography,1997.

LINKS:

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/mandela

http://www.anc.org.za/people/mandela/

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Marx, Karl (1818 -1883). Student and critic of capitalism who predicted its global spread; intellectual source of communist movement. Born in Trier, Germany; studied law at Bonn and philosophy at Berlin. Editor of radical newspaper, exiled to Paris (1843), Brussels (1845), and finally London (from 1849). Organized Communist League, 1847. Author with Engels of Communist Manifesto, attacking capitalism and calling for class struggle. Leader in First International, socialist organization, 1864-1872. Publications include Das Kapital [Capital] (1867-1894); archive of publications is in http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/index.htm. Sources: S. Avineri, Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx, 1970; L. Kolakowski, Main Currents of Marxism, 1978; F. Wheen, Karl Marx: A Life, 1999.

LINK:

http://www.marxists.org

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Murdoch, K. Rupert (1931- ). Developed News Corp. into multinational multimedia empire. Studied at Worcester College, England. By 2000 company included The Times and other newspapers, HarperCollins publisher, 22 U.S. TV stations, TV Guide magazine, 20th Century Fox movie studio, Star TV (Asia) and BSkyB (Europe) satellite tv services, and Fox tv network. Subsidiaries span five continents. Outlets influence culture and politics of dozens of countries. Sources: W. Shawcross, Murdoch, 1993. S. Crainer, Business the Rupert Murdoch Way : 10 Secrets of the World's Greatest Deal Maker, 1999; "Media: A Predator Becomes the Prey," The Observer, Feb. 20, 2000; "Bloodied, But Unbowed," Financial Times, March 2, 2000; "What the Hell is Rupert Up To?" The Guardian, March 6, 2000; "Murdoch Sees Satellite as Way To Keep News Corp. Current," The New York Times, June 16, 2000.

LINK:

http://www.newscorp.com

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Reagan, Ronald W. (1911-). Contributed to end of Cold War, stronger U.S. position in world, and open world economy as President of U.S., 1981-89. BA, Eureka College, 1932. After career as movie actor served as governor of California. Advocated smaller government, less regulation, lower taxes ("Reaganomics"); stronger defense for "peace through strength." Associated with higher deficits and arms spending, neoliberal pursuit of free trade, and pressure on Soviet Union near end of Cold War. Publications include Ronald Reagan : An American Life (1999); The Quotable Ronald Reagan (1999). Sources: D.H. Strober, G.S. Strober, Reagan : The Man and His Presidency, 1997; E.J. Schmertz et al., President Reagan and the World, 1997; F. Fitzgerald, Way Out There in the Blue: Reagan, Star Wars, and the End of the Cold War, 2000.

LINKS:

http://www.reagan.utexas.edu

http://reagan.webteamone.com

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Ruggie, John G. Influential author on global affairs stressing normative role of institutions over strategic pursuit of state interests and advocating American leadership role. PhD, University of California at Berkeley, 1974. Professor of International Relations at Columbia University; Dean, School of International and Public Affairs, 1991-6. Assistant Secretary-General of UN (1997-), senior advisor to Kofi Annan. Applied ideas as consultant to various U.S. and UN agencies. Publications include Winning the Peace: America and World Order in the New Era (1996); Constructing the World Polity: Essays on International Institutionalization (1998).

LINKS:

http://www.columbia.edu/cu/sipa/RESEARCH/jgr5.html

http://www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/record22/23/record2223.47.html

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Soros, George (1930-). Influential financier, operating Soros Fund Management and Quantum Group funds (1969-), who gained fame in successful currency speculation marking integration of financial markets, hence target of globalization critics. Emigrated from Hungary, 1947; studied at London School of Economics. Founder of charitable Open Society Fund (1979) and Soros Foundations network, engaged in humanitarian projects around globe, promoting debate on controversial issues in U.S. Critic of unrestrained capital mobility and "market fundamentalism." Publications include The Alchemy of Finance (1987); Underwriting Democracy (1991); Soros on Soros (1995); The Crisis of Global Capitalism: Open Society Endangered, (1998). Sources: R. Slater, Soros : The Life, Times, & Trading Secrets of the World's Greatest Investor, 1997; L.B. Lindsey, Economic Puppetmasters, 1999; "Soros's Milk of Human Kindness Running Dry," The Daily Telegraph, Aug. 14, 1999; "Volatile Market Forces Soros to Scale Back Risk in Quantum Fund," Los Angeles Times, April 29, 2000; "A Social Call from a Ruthless Speculator," The Financial Times, May 6, 2000.

LINK:

http://www.soros.org

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Strong, Maurice (1929-). Leading figure on global environmental issues, active in UN reform. Educated in Manitoba, Canada. Started career as oil and power company executive, later chairman of Ontario Hydro utility. Chief organizer of ground-breaking 1972 UN meeting on environment in Stockholm. Member of UN Commission on Environment and Development (1980s) and Commission on Global Governance (1990s). Secretary-General of UN Conference on Environment and Development, Rio 1992. Chairman of Earth Council, environmental NGO, since 1993. Advocates sustainable development and "greening the market system." Served as senior advisor to UN Secretary-General and to President of World Bank. Publications include Where on Earth Are We Going?, 2000. Sources: H. Westrup, Maurice Strong: Working for Planet Earth, 1994; "Listen to the 'Crazies' or the Earth Is Doomed," The Ottawa Citizen, May 15, 2000; "Clarion Call to Save the World," The Gazette (Montreal), May 27, 2000.

LINKS:

http://www.ecouncil.ac.cr

http://www.iresist.com/cbg/strong.html

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Turner, Ted (1938-). Founder of Cable News Network (1980), 24-hour international news service, and other U.S. networks. BA, Brown University. Developed Turner Broadcasting System, several U.S. TV channels. Became owner of Atlanta Braves and Hawks teams. Started Goodwill Games between U.S and Soviet Union. Vice-chairman of Time Warner after takeover of TBS/CNN. Established foundation to allocate $1 billion donation to UN. Internationally active in nature conservation. Publications include Ted Turner Speaks: Insight from the World's Greatest Maverick (1999). Sources: H. Whittemore, CNN: The Inside Story, 1990; R. Goldberg/G.J. Goldberg, Citizen Turner: The Wild Rise of an American Tycoon, 1995; P. Bibb, Ted Turner : It Ain't As Easy at Is Looks : A Biography, 1997; A.E. Carlson, Riding A White Horse: Ted Turner's Goodwill Games and Other Crusades, 1998; "The Emperor's New Roles," The Observer, June 4, 2000; "The End for Ted?" The Times, June 9, 2000.

LINKS:

http://www.cnn.com

http://www.unfoundation.org

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Wallerstein, Immanuel M. (1930-). Key figure in development of theory of capitalist world-system. PhD, Columbia University, 1964. Distinguished Professor of Sociology and Director, Fernand Braudel Center, at State University of New York at Binghamton since 1976. President, International Sociological Association, 1994-8. Started career as student of Africa; became proponent of world-system theory, historical account of development of global capitalist system stressing role of strong core countries in world market. Critic of global inequality and of outmoded disciplinary divisions in social science. Publications include The Modern World-System (Vols. 1-3; 1974,1980,1989); Geopolitics and Geoculture (1991); Unthinking Social Science (1991); After Liberalism (1996); The End of the World As We Know It (1999). Sources: T.R. Shannon, An Introduction to the World-System Perspective, 1989; S.K. Sanderson, ed., Civilizations and World Systems, 1995.

LINK:

http://www.binghamton.edu/sociology/faculty/index.html

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